عنوان مقاله [English]
One of the challenging discussions among the positivists and religious believers in recent decades is the realism and cognitivity of metaphysical, religious and ethical propositions. The truth of this kind of propositions is referred to the philosophy of positivistic science which associated the proof of any reality with experiential research (Here the general meaning of research is meant not the special meaning and is the opposite of proving or falsifying).
What is reality? What is realism and what are its paradigms? What is the logic and criterion to prove the truth of different propositions? Explaining the concept of realism, i.e. to admit the realities which are independent of subject, and mentioning the paradigms of realism in this article, I will criticize extreme realism and will defend particular realism which differentiates between the subject of understanding and the subject, realizes the share of the subject and the object in knowledge proportionately, accepts the comprehensiveness of cognitive bases, divides knowledge to "definite" and "valid" cases given they are evaluable, and believes the perfectability of human's knowledge.
Then I will approve this approach that "any kind of reality has its special logic" and its appropriate "truth condition" and the logic of proving experiential propositions may not be generalized to all propositions, pointing the diversity of propositions and stressing on the concept of reality (considered in each case) and also explaining the criterion of truth and the philosophy of science based on the correspondence of propositions with reality or the outside world, and also considering that any kind of proposition includes a special kind of reality.