عنوان مقاله [English]
The discussion of monotheism and its reality may be considered the most important discussion in kalam, philosophy and theoretical ethics. There are many views and disagreements among theologians, philosophers and mystics in this regard which I will discuss them separately explaining the relation between the creator and the created. Mohammad-Taqi Ja'fari and Abdollah Javadi Amoli are two great contemporary scholars who have discussed this topic in different parts of their writings. Allameh Ja'fari poses various criticisms and questions on the relation between the creator and the created according to the idea of unity of being. Criticizing the view of unity of being, he concludes the creator and the created are heterogeneous and believes the relation between God and the universe is like the relation between the subject and the product not the relation between a cause and its effect, in its terminological meaning. Javadi Amoli, on the other hand, who believes the personal unity of being and has a Sadra'ian look at the world, believes the reality of being is the same as the Divine essence of God and says He is unit with particular unity and what seem to be plural are the shadows of that united being who do not [really] exist; in other words it is not an essential and real qualification to say possible beings exist; it is rather accidental and allegorical. Finally explaining the problems of the mentioned views, I will explain that accepting the idea of unity of being leaves no place for answering the most important theological questions such as compulsion and choice, reward and punishment and ….