عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
Heidegger explains the two subjects of being and existence in his philosophy. He believes the essence of existence may not be objectively understood and should be interpreted in the light of the interpretation of human's existence, i.e. Dasein. He interprets Dasein in his special hermeneutical and phenomenological frame and then uses it to identify existence. Human's existence, in his view, is of openness compared with the world of existence and other beings and has special abilities thus Dasein is an existential matter which opens a window to existence. Dasein does not have a constant and distinct essence like other beings, therefore defining human being as a rational animal or the other definitions are not correct. According to his hermeneutics, Heidegger believes human being never understands something with an empty mind; rather his presuppositions and existential views accompanies him in each of his understandings. Human's apprehension is based on his fixed structure; because Dasein has a past, history and culture and human being starts understanding new things based on this special structure. Therefore each person with a different understanding would have a different essence. The question is: does Heidegger's view deny any kind of constant essence for human being or not? Some believe the result of his view is that there is no constant and common essence and nature for human being but I believe this conclusion is not certain, although it seems logical to some extent, due to the complexity of Heidegger's philosophy and some of his interpretations and words. Yet Heidegger 's view may be criticized from many aspects because there are certainly some constant points hidden in human's essence and their differences is due to human's various blossomed and non-blossomed talents. On the other hand according to some of Heidegger's expressions and some interpretations of his words, a kind of stability is considered in the essence of human being.